$3 in 1919 is equivalent in purchasing power to about $47.44 today, an increase of $44.44 over 102 years. The dollar had an average inflation rate of 2.74% per year between 1919 and today, producing a cumulative price increase of 1,481.31%.

This means that today's prices are 15.81 times higher than average prices since 1919, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics consumer price index. A dollar today only buys 6.32% of what it could buy back then.

The 1919 inflation rate was 14.57%. The current year-over-year inflation rate (2020 to 2021) is now 5.25%^{1}.
If this number holds, $3 today will be equivalent in buying power to $3.16 next year.
The current inflation rate page gives more detail on the latest inflation rates.

Contents

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Cumulative price change | 1,481.31% |

Average inflation rate | 2.74% |

Converted amount ($3 base) | $47.44 |

Price difference ($3 base) | $44.44 |

CPI in 1919 | 17.300 |

CPI in 2021 | 273.567 |

Inflation in 1919 | 14.57% |

Inflation in 2021 | 5.25% |

$3 in 1919 | $47.44 in 2021 |

This chart shows a calculation of buying power equivalence for $3 in 1919 (price index tracking began in 1635).

For example, if you started with $3, you would need to end with $47.44 in order to "adjust" for inflation (sometimes refered to as "beating inflation").

When $3 is equivalent to $47.44 over time, that means that the "real value" of a single U.S. dollar decreases over time. In other words, a dollar will pay for fewer items at the store.

This effect explains how inflation erodes the value of a dollar over time. By calculating the value in 1919 dollars, the chart below shows how $3 is worth less over 102 years.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, each of these USD amounts below is equal in terms of what it could buy at the time:

This conversion table shows various other 1919 amounts in today's dollars, based on the 1,481.31% change in prices:

Initial value | Equivalent value |
---|---|

$1 dollar in 1919 | $15.81 dollars today |

$5 dollars in 1919 | $79.07 dollars today |

$10 dollars in 1919 | $158.13 dollars today |

$50 dollars in 1919 | $790.66 dollars today |

$100 dollars in 1919 | $1,581.31 dollars today |

$500 dollars in 1919 | $7,906.56 dollars today |

$1,000 dollars in 1919 | $15,813.12 dollars today |

$5,000 dollars in 1919 | $79,065.61 dollars today |

$10,000 dollars in 1919 | $158,131.21 dollars today |

$50,000 dollars in 1919 | $790,656.07 dollars today |

$100,000 dollars in 1919 | $1,581,312.14 dollars today |

$500,000 dollars in 1919 | $7,906,560.69 dollars today |

$1,000,000 dollars in 1919 | $15,813,121.39 dollars today |

Inflation can vary widely by city, even within the United States. Here's how some cities fared in 1919 to 2021 (figures shown are purchasing power equivalents of $3):

**San Francisco, California**: 3.03% average rate, $3 → $63.28, cumulative change of 2,009.19%**Seattle, Washington**: 2.89% average rate, $3 → $54.84, cumulative change of 1,728.16%**New York**: 2.81% average rate, $3 → $50.73, cumulative change of 1,591.10%**Boston, Massachusetts**: 2.79% average rate, $3 → $49.63, cumulative change of 1,554.20%**Philadelphia, Pennsylvania**: 2.71% average rate, $3 → $45.78, cumulative change of 1,425.87%**Chicago, Illinois**: 2.70% average rate, $3 → $45.33, cumulative change of 1,411.09%**Houston, Texas**: 2.65% average rate, $3 → $43.27, cumulative change of 1,342.20%**Detroit, Michigan**: 2.61% average rate, $3 → $41.61, cumulative change of 1,286.92%**Atlanta, Georgia**: 2.60% average rate, $3 → $41.10, cumulative change of 1,270.09%

San Francisco, California experienced the highest rate of inflation during the 102 years between 1919 and 2021 (3.03%).

Atlanta, Georgia experienced the lowest rate of inflation during the 102 years between 1919 and 2021 (2.60%).

Note that some locations showing 0% inflation may have not yet reported latest data.

Inflation can also vary widely by country. For comparison, in the UK £3.00 in 1919 would be equivalent to £158.90 in 2021, an absolute change of £155.90 and a cumulative change of 5,196.58%.

In Canada, CA$3.00 in 1919 would be equivalent to CA$40.41 in 2021, an absolute change of CA$37.41 and a cumulative change of 1,247.06%.

Compare these numbers to the US's overall absolute change of $44.44 and total percent change of 1,481.31%.

CPI is the weighted combination of many categories of spending that are tracked by the government. Breaking down these categories helps explain the main drivers behind price changes. This chart shows the average rate of inflation for select CPI categories between 1919 and 2021.

Compare these values to the overall average of 2.74% per year:

Category | Avg Inflation (%) | Total Inflation (%) | $3 in 1919 → 2021 |
---|---|---|---|

Food and beverages | 3.88 | 4,758.36 | 145.75 |

Housing | 4.16 | 6,285.15 | 191.55 |

Apparel | 1.14 | 218.26 | 9.55 |

Transportation | 3.26 | 2,546.57 | 79.40 |

Medical care | 4.69 | 10,590.81 | 320.72 |

Recreation | 1.13 | 213.38 | 9.40 |

Education and communication | 1.83 | 534.36 | 19.03 |

Other goods and services | 4.94 | 13,546.94 | 409.41 |

The graph below compares inflation in categories of goods over time. Click on a category such as "Food" to toggle it on or off:

For all these visualizations, it's important to note that not all categories may have been tracked since 1919. This table and charts use the earliest available data for each category.

Our calculations use the following inflation rate formula to calculate the change in value between 1919 and today:

CPI today
CPI in 1919

×

1919 USD value

=

Today's value

Then plug in historical CPI values. The U.S. CPI was 17.3 in the year 1919 and 273.567 in 2021:

273.56717.3

×

$3

=

$3 in 1919 has the same "purchasing power" or "buying power" as $47.44 in 2021.

To get the total inflation rate for the 102 years between 1919 and 2021, we use the following formula:

CPI in 2021 - CPI in 1919CPI in 1919

×

100

=

Plugging in the values to this equation, we get:

273.567 - 17.317.3

×

100

=

The average inflation rate of 2.74% has a compounding effect between 1919 and 2021. As noted above, this yearly inflation rate compounds to produce an overall price difference of 1,481.31% over 102 years.

To help put this inflation into perspective, if we had invested $3 in the S&P 500 index in 1919, our investment would be * nominally* worth approximately $91,349.96 in 2021. This is a return on investment of 3,044,898.71%, with an absolute return of $91,346.96 on top of the original $3.

These numbers are not inflation adjusted, so they are considered *nominal*. In order to evaluate the *real* return on our investment, we must calculate the return with inflation taken into account.

The compounding effect of inflation would account for 93.68% of returns ($85,573.12) during this period. This means the inflation-adjusted * real* return of our $3 investment is $5,773.85. You may also want to account for capital gains tax, which would take your real return down to around $4,908 for most people.

Original Amount | Final Amount | Change | |
---|---|---|---|

Nominal |
$3 | $91,349.96 | 3,044,898.71% |

RealInflation Adjusted |
$3 | $5,776.85 | 192,461.52% |

Information displayed above may differ slightly from other S&P 500 calculators. Minor discrepancies can occur because we use the latest CPI data for inflation, annualized inflation numbers for previous years, and we compute S&P price and dividends from January of 1919 to latest available data for 2021 using average monthly close price.

For more details on the S&P 500 between 1919 and 2021, see the stock market returns calculator.

Politics and news often influence economic performance. Here's what was happening at the time:

- The German Farmer's Party, which would later develop into National Socialist Party, is formed.
- The Bolshevik party re-establishes the idea of a five-member Politburo at the 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party, making it the central body of political power in the Soviet Union. Its first members were Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Lev Kamenev and Nikolai Krestinsky.
- The Turkish War of Independence begins after Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's lands at Samsun, on the Black Sea.
- The Treaty of Versailles is signed ending World War I and establishing the League of Nations.

Raw data for these calculations comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Consumer Price Index (CPI), established in 1913. Inflation data from 1665 to 1912 is sourced from a historical study conducted by political science professor Robert Sahr at Oregon State University.

You may use the following MLA citation for this page: “$3 in 1919 → 2021 | Inflation Calculator.” Official Inflation Data, Alioth Finance, 19 Sep. 2021, https://www.officialdata.org/us/inflation/1919?amount=3.

Special thanks to QuickChart for their chart image API, which is used for chart downloads.

in2013dollars.com is a reference website maintained by the Official Data Foundation.

Cumulative price change | 1,481.31% |

Average inflation rate | 2.74% |

Converted amount ($3 base) | $47.44 |

Price difference ($3 base) | $44.44 |

CPI in 1919 | 17.300 |

CPI in 2021 | 273.567 |

Inflation in 1919 | 14.57% |

Inflation in 2021 | 5.25% |

$3 in 1919 | $47.44 in 2021 |