# \$1 in 1875 → \$0.91 in 1878

## Inflation Calculator

\$

### U.S. Inflation Rate, \$1 from 1875 to 1878

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics consumer price index, prices in 1878 are 9.09% lower than average prices since 1875. The U.S. dollar experienced an average deflation rate of -3.13% per year during this period, meaning the real value of a dollar increased.

In other words, \$1 in 1875 is equivalent in purchasing power to about \$0.91 in 1878, a difference of \$-0.09 over 3 years.

The 1875 inflation rate was -3.51%. The inflation rate in 1878 was -4.76%. The 1878 inflation rate is lower compared to the average inflation rate of 2.32% per year between 1878 and 2020.

 Cumulative price change -9.09% Average inflation rate -3.13% Converted amount (\$1 base) \$0.91 Price difference (\$1 base) \$-0.09 CPI in 1875 11.000 CPI in 1878 10.000 Inflation in 1875 -3.51% Inflation in 1878 -4.76%

USD Inflation since 1635
Annual Rate, the Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI

### Buying power of \$1 in 1875

This chart shows a calculation of buying power equivalence for \$1 in 1875 (price index tracking began in 1635).

For example, if you started with \$1, you would need to end with \$0.91 in order to "adjust" for inflation (sometimes refered to as "beating inflation").

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, each of these USD amounts below is equal in terms of what it could buy at the time:

Year Dollar Value Inflation Rate
1875 \$1.00 -3.51%
1876 \$0.97 -2.73%
1877 \$0.95 -1.87%
1878 \$0.91 -4.76%
1879 \$0.91 0.00%
1880 \$0.93 2.00%
1881 \$0.93 0.00%
1882 \$0.93 0.00%
1883 \$0.92 -0.98%
1884 \$0.89 -2.97%
1885 \$0.88 -1.02%
1886 \$0.85 -3.09%
1887 \$0.86 1.06%
1888 \$0.86 0.00%
1889 \$0.84 -3.16%
1890 \$0.83 -1.09%
1891 \$0.83 0.00%
1892 \$0.83 0.00%
1893 \$0.82 -1.10%
1894 \$0.78 -4.44%
1895 \$0.76 -2.33%
1896 \$0.76 0.00%
1897 \$0.75 -1.19%
1898 \$0.75 0.00%
1899 \$0.75 0.00%
1900 \$0.76 1.20%
1901 \$0.77 1.19%
1902 \$0.78 1.18%
1903 \$0.80 2.33%
1904 \$0.81 1.14%
1905 \$0.80 -1.12%
1906 \$0.82 2.27%
1907 \$0.85 4.44%
1908 \$0.84 -2.13%
1909 \$0.83 -1.09%
1910 \$0.86 4.40%
1911 \$0.86 0.00%
1912 \$0.88 2.11%
1913 \$0.90 2.06%
1914 \$0.91 1.01%
1915 \$0.92 1.00%
1916 \$0.99 7.92%
1917 \$1.16 17.43%
1918 \$1.37 17.97%
1919 \$1.57 14.57%
1920 \$1.82 15.61%
1921 \$1.63 -10.50%
1922 \$1.53 -6.15%
1923 \$1.55 1.79%
1924 \$1.55 0.00%
1925 \$1.59 2.34%
1926 \$1.61 1.14%
1927 \$1.58 -1.69%
1928 \$1.55 -1.72%
1929 \$1.55 0.00%
1930 \$1.52 -2.34%
1931 \$1.38 -8.98%
1932 \$1.25 -9.87%
1933 \$1.18 -5.11%
1934 \$1.22 3.08%
1935 \$1.25 2.24%
1936 \$1.26 1.46%
1937 \$1.31 3.60%
1938 \$1.28 -2.08%
1939 \$1.26 -1.42%
1940 \$1.27 0.72%
1941 \$1.34 5.00%
1942 \$1.48 10.88%
1943 \$1.57 6.13%
1944 \$1.60 1.73%
1945 \$1.64 2.27%
1946 \$1.77 8.33%
1947 \$2.03 14.36%
1948 \$2.19 8.07%
1949 \$2.16 -1.24%
1950 \$2.19 1.26%
1951 \$2.36 7.88%
1952 \$2.41 1.92%
1953 \$2.43 0.75%
1954 \$2.45 0.75%
1955 \$2.44 -0.37%
1956 \$2.47 1.49%
1957 \$2.55 3.31%
1958 \$2.63 2.85%
1959 \$2.65 0.69%
1960 \$2.69 1.72%
1961 \$2.72 1.01%
1962 \$2.75 1.00%
1963 \$2.78 1.32%
1964 \$2.82 1.31%
1965 \$2.86 1.61%
1966 \$2.95 2.86%
1967 \$3.04 3.09%
1968 \$3.16 4.19%
1969 \$3.34 5.46%
1970 \$3.53 5.72%
1971 \$3.68 4.38%
1972 \$3.80 3.21%
1973 \$4.04 6.22%
1974 \$4.48 11.04%
1975 \$4.89 9.13%
1976 \$5.17 5.76%
1977 \$5.51 6.50%
1978 \$5.93 7.59%
1979 \$6.60 11.35%
1980 \$7.49 13.50%
1981 \$8.26 10.32%
1982 \$8.77 6.16%
1983 \$9.05 3.21%
1984 \$9.45 4.32%
1985 \$9.78 3.56%
1986 \$9.96 1.86%
1987 \$10.33 3.65%
1988 \$10.75 4.14%
1989 \$11.27 4.82%
1990 \$11.88 5.40%
1991 \$12.38 4.21%
1992 \$12.75 3.01%
1993 \$13.14 2.99%
1994 \$13.47 2.56%
1995 \$13.85 2.83%
1996 \$14.26 2.95%
1997 \$14.59 2.29%
1998 \$14.82 1.56%
1999 \$15.15 2.21%
2000 \$15.65 3.36%
2001 \$16.10 2.85%
2002 \$16.35 1.58%
2003 \$16.73 2.28%
2004 \$17.17 2.66%
2005 \$17.75 3.39%
2006 \$18.33 3.23%
2007 \$18.85 2.85%
2008 \$19.57 3.84%
2009 \$19.50 -0.36%
2010 \$19.82 1.64%
2011 \$20.45 3.16%
2012 \$20.87 2.07%
2013 \$21.18 1.46%
2014 \$21.52 1.62%
2015 \$21.55 0.12%
2016 \$21.82 1.26%
2017 \$22.28 2.13%
2018 \$22.84 2.49%
2019 \$23.24 1.76%
2020 \$23.52 1.18%*
* Compared to previous annual rate. Not final. See inflation summary for latest 12-month trailing value.

### Inflation by Country

Inflation can also vary widely by country. For comparison, in the UK £1.00 in 1875 would be equivalent to £0.97 in 1878, an absolute change of £-0.03 and a cumulative change of -3.06%.

Compare these numbers to the US's overall absolute change of \$-0.09 and total percent change of -9.09%.

### Inflation by Spending Category

CPI is the weighted combination of many categories of spending that are tracked by the government. This chart shows the average rate of inflation for select CPI categories between 1875 and 1878.

Compare these values to the overall average of -3.13% per year:

Category Avg Inflation (%) Total Inflation (%) \$1 in 1875 → 1878
Food and beverages 0.00 0.00 1.00
Housing 0.00 0.00 1.00
Apparel 0.00 0.00 1.00
Transportation 0.00 0.00 1.00
Medical care 0.00 0.00 1.00
Recreation 0.00 0.00 1.00
Education and communication 0.00 0.00 1.00
Other goods and services 0.00 0.00 1.00

The graph below compares inflation in categories of goods over time. Click on a category such as "Food" to toggle it on or off:

For all these visualizations, it's important to note that not all categories may have been tracked since 1875. This table and charts use the earliest available data for each category.

### How to Calculate Inflation Rate for \$1, 1875 to 1878

This inflation calculator uses the following inflation rate formula:

CPI in 1878CPI in 1875
×
1875 USD value
=
1878 USD value

Then plug in historical CPI values. The U.S. CPI was 11 in the year 1875 and 10 in 1878:

1011
×
\$1
=
\$0.91

\$1 in 1875 has the same "purchasing power" or "buying power" as \$0.91 in 1878.

To get the total inflation rate for the 3 years between 1875 and 1878, we use the following formula:

CPI in 1878 - CPI in 1875CPI in 1875
×
100
=
Cumulative inflation rate (3 years)

Plugging in the values to this equation, we get:

10 - 1111
×
100
=
-9%

### Comparison to S&P 500 Index

The average inflation rate of -3.13% has a compounding effect between 1875 and 1878. As noted above, this yearly inflation rate compounds to produce an overall price difference of -9.09% over 3 years.

To help put this inflation into perspective, if we had invested \$1 in the S&P 500 index in 1875, our investment would be nominally worth approximately \$1.04 in 1878. This is a return on investment of 4.10%, with an absolute return of \$0.04 on top of the original \$1.

These numbers are not inflation adjusted, so they are considered nominal. In order to evaluate the real return on our investment, we must calculate the return with inflation taken into account.

The compounding effect of inflation would account for -10.00% of returns (\$-0.10) during this period. This means the inflation-adjusted real return of our \$1 investment is \$0.15. You may also want to account for capital gains tax, which would take your real return down to around \$0 for most people.

Investment in S&P 500 Index, 1875-1878
Original Amount Final Amount Change
Nominal \$1 \$1.04 4.10%
Real
\$1 \$1.15 14.51%

Information displayed above may differ slightly from other S&P 500 calculators. Minor discrepancies can occur because we use the latest CPI data for inflation, annualized inflation numbers for previous years, and we compute S&P price and dividends from January of 1875 to latest available data for 1878 using average monthly close price.

For more details on the S&P 500 between 1875 and 1878, see the stock market returns calculator.

Politics and news often influence economic performance. Here's what was happening at the time:

• Verney Cameroon becomes the first European to reach Benguela in Angola.
• Alexander Graham Bell makes the first sound transmission.
• The Pacific Stock Exchange is opened for the first time.

### Data Source & Citation

Raw data for these calculations comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' (CPI), established in 1913. Inflation data from 1665 to 1912 is sourced from a historical study conducted by political science professor Robert Sahr at Oregon State University.

You may use the following MLA citation for this page: “\$1 in 1875 → 1878 | Inflation Calculator.” Official Inflation Data, Alioth Finance, 10 Apr. 2020, https://www.officialdata.org/us/inflation/1875?amount=1&endYear=1878.