# \$1 in 1990 is worth \$1.13 in 1994

\$

## Value of \$1 from 1990 to 1994

\$1 in 1990 is equivalent in purchasing power to about \$1.13 in 1994, an increase of \$0.13 over 4 years. The dollar had an average inflation rate of 3.19% per year between 1990 and 1994, producing a cumulative price increase of 13.39%.

This means that prices in 1994 are 1.13 times higher than average prices since 1990, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics consumer price index.

The inflation rate in 1990 was 5.40%. The inflation rate in 1994 was 2.56%. The 1994 inflation rate is higher compared to the average inflation rate of 2.50% per year between 1994 and 2022.

 Cumulative price change 13.39% Average inflation rate 3.19% Converted amount (\$1 base) \$1.13 Price difference (\$1 base) \$0.13 CPI in 1990 130.700 CPI in 1994 148.200 Inflation in 1990 5.40% Inflation in 1994 2.56% \$1 in 1990 \$1.13 in 1994

USD inflation since 1990
Annual Rate, the Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI

## Buying power of \$1 in 1990

This chart shows a calculation of buying power equivalence for \$1 in 1990 (price index tracking began in 1635).

For example, if you started with \$1, you would need to end with \$1.13 in order to "adjust" for inflation (sometimes refered to as "beating inflation").

When \$1 is equivalent to \$1.13 over time, that means that the "real value" of a single U.S. dollar decreases over time. In other words, a dollar will pay for fewer items at the store.

This effect explains how inflation erodes the value of a dollar over time. By calculating the value in 1990 dollars, the chart below shows how \$1 is worth less over 4 years.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, each of these USD amounts below is equal in terms of what it could buy at the time:

Dollar inflation: 1990-1994
YearDollar ValueInflation Rate
1990\$1.005.40%
1991\$1.044.21%
1992\$1.073.01%
1993\$1.112.99%
1994\$1.132.56%
1995\$1.172.83%
1996\$1.202.95%
1997\$1.232.29%
1998\$1.251.56%
1999\$1.272.21%
2000\$1.323.36%
2001\$1.362.85%
2002\$1.381.58%
2003\$1.412.28%
2004\$1.452.66%
2005\$1.493.39%
2006\$1.543.23%
2007\$1.592.85%
2008\$1.653.84%
2009\$1.64-0.36%
2010\$1.671.64%
2011\$1.723.16%
2012\$1.762.07%
2013\$1.781.46%
2014\$1.811.62%
2015\$1.810.12%
2016\$1.841.26%
2017\$1.882.13%
2018\$1.922.49%
2019\$1.961.76%
2020\$1.981.23%
2021\$2.074.70%
2022\$2.279.34%*
* Compared to previous annual rate. Not final. See inflation summary for latest 12-month trailing value.

This conversion table shows various other 1990 amounts in 1994 dollars, based on the 13.39% change in prices:

Conversion: 1990 dollars in 1994
Initial valueEquivalent value
\$1 dollar in 1990\$1.13 dollars in 1994
\$5 dollars in 1990\$5.67 dollars in 1994
\$10 dollars in 1990\$11.34 dollars in 1994
\$50 dollars in 1990\$56.69 dollars in 1994
\$100 dollars in 1990\$113.39 dollars in 1994
\$500 dollars in 1990\$566.95 dollars in 1994
\$1,000 dollars in 1990\$1,133.89 dollars in 1994
\$5,000 dollars in 1990\$5,669.47 dollars in 1994
\$10,000 dollars in 1990\$11,338.94 dollars in 1994
\$50,000 dollars in 1990\$56,694.72 dollars in 1994
\$100,000 dollars in 1990\$113,389.44 dollars in 1994
\$500,000 dollars in 1990\$566,947.21 dollars in 1994
\$1,000,000 dollars in 1990\$1,133,894.41 dollars in 1994

## Inflation by City

Inflation can vary widely by city, even within the United States. Here's how some cities fared in 1990 to 1994 (figures shown are purchasing power equivalents of \$1):

Denver, Colorado experienced the highest rate of inflation during the 4 years between 1990 and 1994 (4.07%).

Atlanta, Georgia experienced the lowest rate of inflation during the 4 years between 1990 and 1994 (0.00%).

Note that some locations showing 0% inflation may have not yet reported latest data.

## Inflation by Country

Inflation can also vary widely by country. For comparison, in the UK £1.00 in 1990 would be equivalent to £1.14 in 1994, an absolute change of £0.14 and a cumulative change of 14.27%.

In Canada, CA\$1.00 in 1990 would be equivalent to CA\$1.09 in 1994, an absolute change of CA\$0.09 and a cumulative change of 9.38%.

Compare these numbers to the US's overall absolute change of \$0.13 and total percent change of 13.39%.

## Inflation by Spending Category

CPI is the weighted combination of many categories of spending that are tracked by the government. Breaking down these categories helps explain the main drivers behind price changes.

Between 1990 and 1994:

This chart shows the average rate of inflation for select CPI categories between 1990 and 1994.

Compare these values to the overall average of 3.19% per year:

CategoryAvg Inflation (%)Total Inflation (%)\$1 in 1990 → 1994
Food and beverages2.349.681.10
Housing3.0212.621.13
Apparel1.837.511.08
Transportation2.7411.441.11
Medical care6.7029.621.30
Recreation2.168.951.09
Education and communication3.8616.341.16
Other goods and services5.7124.861.25

The graph below compares inflation in categories of goods over time. Click on a category such as "Food" to toggle it on or off:

For all these visualizations, it's important to note that not all categories may have been tracked since 1990. This table and charts use the earliest available data for each category.

## How to calculate inflation rate for \$1, 1990 to 1994

Our calculations use the following inflation rate formula to calculate the change in value between 1990 and 1994:

CPI in 1994 CPI in 1990
×
1990 USD value
=
1994 USD value

Then plug in historical CPI values. The U.S. CPI was 130.7 in the year 1990 and 148.2 in 1994:

148.2130.7
×
\$1
=
\$1.13

\$1 in 1990 has the same "purchasing power" or "buying power" as \$1.13 in 1994.

To get the total inflation rate for the 4 years between 1990 and 1994, we use the following formula:

CPI in 1994 - CPI in 1990CPI in 1990
×
100
=
Cumulative inflation rate (4 years)

Plugging in the values to this equation, we get:

148.2 - 130.7130.7
×
100
=
13%

## Alternate Measurements of Inflation

There are multiple ways to measure inflation. Published rates of inflation will vary depending on methodology. The Consumer Price Index, used above, is the most common standard used globally.

Alternative measurements are sometimes used based on context and economic/political circumstances. Below are a few examples of alternative measurements.

### Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE) Inflation

The PCE Price Index is the U.S. Federal Reserve's preferred measure of inflation, compiled by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. It measures the change in prices of goods and services purchased by consumers.

The PCE Price Index changed by 2.65% per year on average between 1990 and 1994. The total PCE inflation between these dates was 11.01%. In 1990, PCE inflation was 4.39%.

This means that the PCE Index equates \$1 in 1990 with \$1.11 in 1994, a difference of \$0.11. Compare this to the standard CPI measurement, which equates \$1 with \$1.13. The PCE measured -2.38% inflation compared to standard CPI.

For more information on the difference between PCE and CPI, see this analysis provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

### Core Inflation

Also of note is the Core CPI, which uses the standard CPI but omits the more volatile categories of food and energy.

Core inflation averaged 3.68% per year between 1990 and 1994 (vs all-CPI inflation of 3.19%), for an inflation total of 15.54%. In 1990, core inflation was 5.03%.

When using the core inflation measurement, \$1 in 1990 is equivalent in buying power to \$1.16 in 1994, a difference of \$0.16. Recall that the converted amount is \$1.13 when all items including food and energy are measured.

## Comparison to S&P 500 Index

The average inflation rate of 3.19% has a compounding effect between 1990 and 1994. As noted above, this yearly inflation rate compounds to produce an overall price difference of 13.39% over 4 years.

To help put this inflation into perspective, if we had invested \$1 in the S&P 500 index in 1990, our investment would be nominally worth approximately \$1.59 in 1994. This is a return on investment of 59.27%, with an absolute return of \$0.59 on top of the original \$1.

These numbers are not inflation adjusted, so they are considered nominal. In order to evaluate the real return on our investment, we must calculate the return with inflation taken into account.

The compounding effect of inflation would account for 11.81% of returns (\$0.19) during this period. This means the inflation-adjusted real return of our \$1 investment is \$0.40. You may also want to account for capital gains tax, which would take your real return down to around \$0 for most people.

Investment in S&P 500 Index, 1990-1994
Original AmountFinal AmountChange
Nominal\$1\$1.5959.27%
Real
\$1\$1.4040.46%

Information displayed above may differ slightly from other S&P 500 calculators. Minor discrepancies can occur because we use the latest CPI data for inflation, annualized inflation numbers for previous years, and we compute S&P price and dividends from January of 1990 to latest available data for 1994 using average monthly close price.

For more details on the S&P 500 between 1990 and 1994, see the stock market returns calculator.

## Data source & citation

Raw data for these calculations comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' (CPI), established in 1913. Inflation data from 1634 to 1912 is sourced from a historical study conducted by political science professor Robert Sahr at Oregon State University and from the American Antiquarian Society.

You may use the following MLA citation for this page: “\$1 in 1990 → 1994 | Inflation Calculator.” Official Inflation Data, Alioth Finance, 13 Aug. 2022, https://www.officialdata.org/us/inflation/1990?amount=1&endYear=1994.

Special thanks to QuickChart for their chart image API, which is used for chart downloads.

in2013dollars.com is a reference website maintained by the Official Data Foundation.