# \$1,000,000,000 in 2000 is worth \$1,458,943,089.43 in 2018

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## Value of \$1,000,000,000 from 2000 to 2018

\$1,000,000,000 in 2000 is equivalent in purchasing power to about \$1,458,943,089.43 in 2018, an increase of \$458,943,089.43 over 18 years. The dollar had an average inflation rate of 2.12% per year between 2000 and 2018, producing a cumulative price increase of 45.89%.

This means that prices in 2018 are 1.46 times higher than average prices since 2000, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics consumer price index.

The 2000 inflation rate was 3.36%. The inflation rate in 2018 was 2.49%. The 2018 inflation rate is higher compared to the average inflation rate of 2.06% per year between 2018 and 2021.

 Cumulative price change 45.89% Average inflation rate 2.12% Converted amount (\$1,000,000,000 base) \$1,458,943,089.43 Price difference (\$1,000,000,000 base) \$458,943,089.43 CPI in 2000 172.200 CPI in 2018 251.230 Inflation in 2000 3.36% Inflation in 2018 2.49% \$1,000,000,000 in 2000 \$1,458,943,089.43 in 2018

USD Inflation since 1913
Annual Rate, the Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI

## Buying power of \$1,000,000,000 in 2000

This chart shows a calculation of buying power equivalence for \$1,000,000,000 in 2000 (price index tracking began in 1635).

For example, if you started with \$1,000,000,000, you would need to end with \$1,458,943,089.43 in order to "adjust" for inflation (sometimes refered to as "beating inflation").

When \$1,000,000,000 is equivalent to \$1,458,943,089.43 over time, that means that the "real value" of a single U.S. dollar decreases over time. In other words, a dollar will pay for fewer items at the store.

This effect explains how inflation erodes the value of a dollar over time. By calculating the value in 2000 dollars, the chart below shows how \$1,000,000,000 is worth less over 18 years.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, each of these USD amounts below is equal in terms of what it could buy at the time:

Dollar inflation: 2000-2018
Year Dollar Value Inflation Rate
2000 \$1,000,000,000.00 3.36%
2001 \$1,028,455,284.55 2.85%
2002 \$1,044,715,447.15 1.58%
2003 \$1,068,524,970.96 2.28%
2004 \$1,096,980,255.52 2.66%
2005 \$1,134,146,341.46 3.39%
2006 \$1,170,731,707.32 3.23%
2007 \$1,204,076,655.05 2.85%
2008 \$1,250,307,781.65 3.84%
2009 \$1,245,859,465.74 -0.36%
2010 \$1,266,295,005.81 1.64%
2011 \$1,306,265,969.80 3.16%
2012 \$1,333,298,490.13 2.07%
2013 \$1,352,828,106.85 1.46%
2014 \$1,374,773,519.16 1.62%
2015 \$1,376,405,342.62 0.12%
2016 \$1,393,768,873.40 1.26%
2017 \$1,423,461,091.75 2.13%
2018 \$1,458,943,089.43 2.49%
2019 \$1,484,654,471.54 1.76%
2020 \$1,502,971,351.14 1.23%
2021 \$1,550,836,236.93 3.18%*
* Compared to previous annual rate. Not final. See inflation summary for latest 12-month trailing value.
Click to show 12 more rows

This conversion table shows various other 2000 amounts in 2018 dollars, based on the 45.89% change in prices:

Conversion: 2000 dollars in 2018
Initial value Equivalent value
\$1 dollar in 2000 \$1.46 dollars in 2018
\$5 dollars in 2000 \$7.29 dollars in 2018
\$10 dollars in 2000 \$14.59 dollars in 2018
\$50 dollars in 2000 \$72.95 dollars in 2018
\$100 dollars in 2000 \$145.89 dollars in 2018
\$500 dollars in 2000 \$729.47 dollars in 2018
\$1,000 dollars in 2000 \$1,458.94 dollars in 2018
\$5,000 dollars in 2000 \$7,294.72 dollars in 2018
\$10,000 dollars in 2000 \$14,589.43 dollars in 2018
\$50,000 dollars in 2000 \$72,947.15 dollars in 2018
\$100,000 dollars in 2000 \$145,894.31 dollars in 2018
\$500,000 dollars in 2000 \$729,471.54 dollars in 2018
\$1,000,000 dollars in 2000 \$1,458,943.09 dollars in 2018

## Inflation by City

Inflation can vary widely by city, even within the United States. Here's how some cities fared in 2000 to 2018 (figures shown are purchasing power equivalents of \$1,000,000,000):

• San Diego, California: 4.00% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$2,026,768,260.64, cumulative change of 102.68%
• San Francisco, California: 2.60% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,586,895,336.98, cumulative change of 58.69%
• Miami-Fort Lauderdale, Florida: 2.58% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,580,581,042.80, cumulative change of 58.06%
• Tampa, Florida: 2.42% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,539,210,706.93, cumulative change of 53.92%
• Seattle, Washington: 2.33% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,513,565,140.44, cumulative change of 51.36%
• Denver, Colorado: 2.33% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,512,459,584.30, cumulative change of 51.25%
• Boston, Massachusetts: 2.29% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,503,442,160.79, cumulative change of 50.34%
• New York: 2.28% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,499,536,944.01, cumulative change of 49.95%
• Houston, Texas: 2.15% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,467,561,028.42, cumulative change of 46.76%
• Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota: 2.05% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,440,146,972.37, cumulative change of 44.01%
• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 2.00% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,427,311,873.70, cumulative change of 42.73%
• Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas: 1.95% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,415,019,258.06, cumulative change of 41.50%
• St Louis, Missouri: 1.90% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,403,566,390.68, cumulative change of 40.36%
• Atlanta, Georgia: 1.88% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,399,054,536.56, cumulative change of 39.91%
• Detroit, Michigan: 1.76% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,369,387,504.30, cumulative change of 36.94%
• Chicago, Illinois: 1.75% average rate, \$1,000,000,000 → \$1,367,634,367.36, cumulative change of 36.76%

San Diego, California experienced the highest rate of inflation during the 18 years between 2000 and 2018 (4.00%).

Chicago, Illinois experienced the lowest rate of inflation during the 18 years between 2000 and 2018 (1.75%).

Note that some locations showing 0% inflation may have not yet reported latest data.

## Inflation by Country

Inflation can also vary widely by country. For comparison, in the UK £1,000,000,000.00 in 2000 would be equivalent to £1,643,230,574.58 in 2018, an absolute change of £643,230,574.58 and a cumulative change of 64.32%.

In Canada, CA\$1,000,000,000.00 in 2000 would be equivalent to CA\$1,352,637,021.72 in 2018, an absolute change of CA\$352,637,021.72 and a cumulative change of 35.26%.

Compare these numbers to the US's overall absolute change of \$458,943,089.43 and total percent change of 45.89%.

## Inflation by Spending Category

CPI is the weighted combination of many categories of spending that are tracked by the government. Breaking down these categories helps explain the main drivers behind price changes. This chart shows the average rate of inflation for select CPI categories between 2000 and 2018.

Compare these values to the overall average of 2.12% per year:

Category Avg Inflation (%) Total Inflation (%) \$1,000,000,000 in 2000 → 2018
Food and beverages 2.30 50.49 1,504,938,124.94
Housing 2.37 52.43 1,524,274,411.52
Apparel -0.17 -3.03 969,728,109.23
Transportation 1.78 37.39 1,373,915,617.32
Medical care 3.50 85.89 1,858,868,074.81
Recreation 0.79 15.29 1,152,910,044.37
Education and communication 1.61 33.41 1,334,083,224.97
Other goods and services 2.76 63.16 1,631,601,241.89

The graph below compares inflation in categories of goods over time. Click on a category such as "Food" to toggle it on or off:

For all these visualizations, it's important to note that not all categories may have been tracked since 2000. This table and charts use the earliest available data for each category.

## How to Calculate Inflation Rate for \$1,000,000,000, 2000 to 2018

Our calculations use the following inflation rate formula to calculate the change in value between 2000 and 2018:

CPI in 2018 CPI in 2000
×
2000 USD value
=
2018 USD value

Then plug in historical CPI values. The U.S. CPI was 172.2 in the year 2000 and 251.23 in 2018:

251.23172.2
×
\$1,000,000,000
=
\$1,458,943,089.43

\$1,000,000,000 in 2000 has the same "purchasing power" or "buying power" as \$1,458,943,089.43 in 2018.

To get the total inflation rate for the 18 years between 2000 and 2018, we use the following formula:

CPI in 2018 - CPI in 2000CPI in 2000
×
100
=
Cumulative inflation rate (18 years)

Plugging in the values to this equation, we get:

251.23 - 172.2172.2
×
100
=
46%

## Alternate Measurements of Inflation

The above data describe the CPI for all items. Also of note is the Core CPI, which measures inflation for all items except for the more volatile categories of food and energy. Core inflation averaged 1.97% per year between 2000 and 2018 (vs all-CPI inflation of 2.12%), for an inflation total of 42.07%.

When using the core inflation measurement, \$1,000,000,000 in 2000 is equivalent in buying power to \$1,420,717,074.00 in 2018, a difference of \$420,717,074.00. Recall that for All Items, the converted amount is \$1,458,943,089.43 with a difference of \$458,943,089.43.

In 2000, core inflation was 2.43%.

Chained CPI is an alternative measurement that takes into account how consumers adjust spending for similar items. Chained inflation averaged 1.85% per year between 2000 and 2018, a total inflation amount of 42.07%.

According to the Chained CPI measurement, \$1,000,000,000 in 2000 is equal in buying power to \$1,390,711,906.38 in 2018, a difference of \$390,711,906.38 (versus a converted amount of \$1,458,943,089.43/change of \$458,943,089.43 for All Items).

In 2000, chained inflation was 1.99%.

## Comparison to S&P 500 Index

The average inflation rate of 2.12% has a compounding effect between 2000 and 2018. As noted above, this yearly inflation rate compounds to produce an overall price difference of 45.89% over 18 years.

To help put this inflation into perspective, if we had invested \$1,000,000,000 in the S&P 500 index in 2000, our investment would be nominally worth approximately \$2,614,784,422.21 in 2018. This is a return on investment of 161.48%, with an absolute return of \$1,614,784,422.21 on top of the original \$1,000,000,000.

These numbers are not inflation adjusted, so they are considered nominal. In order to evaluate the real return on our investment, we must calculate the return with inflation taken into account.

The compounding effect of inflation would account for 31.46% of returns (\$822,538,760.85) during this period. This means the inflation-adjusted real return of our \$1,000,000,000 investment is \$792,245,661.37. You may also want to account for capital gains tax, which would take your real return down to around \$673,408,812 for most people.

Investment in S&P 500 Index, 2000-2018
Original Amount Final Amount Change
Nominal \$1,000,000,000 \$2,614,784,422.21 161.48%
Real
\$1,000,000,000 \$1,792,245,661.37 79.22%

Information displayed above may differ slightly from other S&P 500 calculators. Minor discrepancies can occur because we use the latest CPI data for inflation, annualized inflation numbers for previous years, and we compute S&P price and dividends from January of 2000 to latest available data for 2018 using average monthly close price.

For more details on the S&P 500 between 2000 and 2018, see the stock market returns calculator.

Politics and news often influence economic performance. Here's what was happening at the time:

• Steve Ballmer becomes CEO of Microsoft after Bill Gates steps down.
• Dot-com bubble bursts after NASDAQ Composite stock market index peaks.
• George Bush becomes President of the U.S. in a disputed election that is eventually resolved by the Supreme Court.
• Gisborne, New Zealand becomes the first city to enter the new millennium.

## Data Source & Citation

Raw data for these calculations comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' (CPI), established in 1913. Inflation data from 1665 to 1912 is sourced from a historical study conducted by political science professor Robert Sahr at Oregon State University.

You may use the following MLA citation for this page: “\$1,000,000,000 in 2000 → 2018 | Inflation Calculator.” Official Inflation Data, Alioth Finance, 14 May. 2021, https://www.officialdata.org/2000-dollars-in-2018?amount=1000000000.

Special thanks to QuickChart for their chart image API, which is used for chart downloads.

in2013dollars.com is a reference website maintained by the Official Data Foundation.