# \$100 in 1890 is worth \$2,977.69 in 2021

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## Value of \$100 from 1890 to 2021

\$100 in 1890 is equivalent in purchasing power to about \$2,977.69 in 2021, an increase of \$2,877.69 over 131 years. The dollar had an average inflation rate of 2.62% per year between 1890 and 2021, producing a cumulative price increase of 2,877.69%.

This means that prices in 2021 are 29.78 times higher than average prices since 1890, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics consumer price index.

The inflation rate in 1890 was -1.09%. The inflation rate in 2021 was 4.70%. The 2021 inflation rate is higher compared to the average inflation rate of 2.89% per year between 2021 and 2022.

 Cumulative price change 2,877.69% Average inflation rate 2.62% Converted amount (\$100 base) \$2,977.69 Price difference (\$100 base) \$2,877.69 CPI in 1890 9.100 CPI in 2021 270.970 Inflation in 1890 -1.09% Inflation in 2021 4.70% \$100 in 1890 \$2,977.69 in 2021

USD Inflation since 1635
Annual Rate, the Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI

## Buying power of \$100 in 1890

This chart shows a calculation of buying power equivalence for \$100 in 1890 (price index tracking began in 1635).

For example, if you started with \$100, you would need to end with \$2,977.69 in order to "adjust" for inflation (sometimes refered to as "beating inflation").

When \$100 is equivalent to \$2,977.69 over time, that means that the "real value" of a single U.S. dollar decreases over time. In other words, a dollar will pay for fewer items at the store.

This effect explains how inflation erodes the value of a dollar over time. By calculating the value in 1890 dollars, the chart below shows how \$100 is worth less over 131 years.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, each of these USD amounts below is equal in terms of what it could buy at the time:

Dollar inflation: 1890-2021
Year Dollar Value Inflation Rate
1890 \$100.00 -1.09%
1891 \$100.00 0.00%
1892 \$100.00 0.00%
1893 \$98.90 -1.10%
1894 \$94.51 -4.44%
1895 \$92.31 -2.33%
1896 \$92.31 0.00%
1897 \$91.21 -1.19%
1898 \$91.21 0.00%
1899 \$91.21 0.00%
1900 \$92.31 1.20%
1901 \$93.41 1.19%
1902 \$94.51 1.18%
1903 \$96.70 2.33%
1904 \$97.80 1.14%
1905 \$96.70 -1.12%
1906 \$98.90 2.27%
1907 \$103.30 4.44%
1908 \$101.10 -2.13%
1909 \$100.00 -1.09%
1910 \$104.40 4.40%
1911 \$104.40 0.00%
1912 \$106.59 2.11%
1913 \$108.79 2.06%
1914 \$109.89 1.01%
1915 \$110.99 1.00%
1916 \$119.78 7.92%
1917 \$140.66 17.43%
1918 \$165.93 17.97%
1919 \$190.11 14.57%
1920 \$219.78 15.61%
1921 \$196.70 -10.50%
1922 \$184.62 -6.15%
1923 \$187.91 1.79%
1924 \$187.91 0.00%
1925 \$192.31 2.34%
1926 \$194.51 1.14%
1927 \$191.21 -1.69%
1928 \$187.91 -1.72%
1929 \$187.91 0.00%
1930 \$183.52 -2.34%
1931 \$167.03 -8.98%
1932 \$150.55 -9.87%
1933 \$142.86 -5.11%
1934 \$147.25 3.08%
1935 \$150.55 2.24%
1936 \$152.75 1.46%
1937 \$158.24 3.60%
1938 \$154.95 -2.08%
1939 \$152.75 -1.42%
1940 \$153.85 0.72%
1941 \$161.54 5.00%
1942 \$179.12 10.88%
1943 \$190.11 6.13%
1944 \$193.41 1.73%
1945 \$197.80 2.27%
1946 \$214.29 8.33%
1947 \$245.05 14.36%
1948 \$264.84 8.07%
1949 \$261.54 -1.24%
1950 \$264.84 1.26%
1951 \$285.71 7.88%
1952 \$291.21 1.92%
1953 \$293.41 0.75%
1954 \$295.60 0.75%
1955 \$294.51 -0.37%
1956 \$298.90 1.49%
1957 \$308.79 3.31%
1958 \$317.58 2.85%
1959 \$319.78 0.69%
1960 \$325.27 1.72%
1961 \$328.57 1.01%
1962 \$331.87 1.00%
1963 \$336.26 1.32%
1964 \$340.66 1.31%
1965 \$346.15 1.61%
1966 \$356.04 2.86%
1967 \$367.03 3.09%
1968 \$382.42 4.19%
1969 \$403.30 5.46%
1970 \$426.37 5.72%
1971 \$445.05 4.38%
1972 \$459.34 3.21%
1973 \$487.91 6.22%
1974 \$541.76 11.04%
1975 \$591.21 9.13%
1976 \$625.27 5.76%
1977 \$665.93 6.50%
1978 \$716.48 7.59%
1979 \$797.80 11.35%
1980 \$905.49 13.50%
1981 \$998.90 10.32%
1982 \$1,060.44 6.16%
1983 \$1,094.51 3.21%
1984 \$1,141.76 4.32%
1985 \$1,182.42 3.56%
1986 \$1,204.40 1.86%
1987 \$1,248.35 3.65%
1988 \$1,300.00 4.14%
1989 \$1,362.64 4.82%
1990 \$1,436.26 5.40%
1991 \$1,496.70 4.21%
1992 \$1,541.76 3.01%
1993 \$1,587.91 2.99%
1994 \$1,628.57 2.56%
1995 \$1,674.73 2.83%
1996 \$1,724.18 2.95%
1997 \$1,763.74 2.29%
1998 \$1,791.21 1.56%
1999 \$1,830.77 2.21%
2000 \$1,892.31 3.36%
2001 \$1,946.15 2.85%
2002 \$1,976.92 1.58%
2003 \$2,021.98 2.28%
2004 \$2,075.82 2.66%
2005 \$2,146.15 3.39%
2006 \$2,215.38 3.23%
2007 \$2,278.48 2.85%
2008 \$2,365.97 3.84%
2009 \$2,357.55 -0.36%
2010 \$2,396.22 1.64%
2011 \$2,471.86 3.16%
2012 \$2,523.01 2.07%
2013 \$2,559.97 1.46%
2014 \$2,601.49 1.62%
2015 \$2,604.58 0.12%
2016 \$2,637.44 1.26%
2017 \$2,693.63 2.13%
2018 \$2,760.77 2.49%
2019 \$2,809.42 1.76%
2020 \$2,844.08 1.23%
2021 \$2,977.69 4.70%
2022 \$3,063.76 2.89%*
* Compared to previous annual rate. Not final. See inflation summary for latest 12-month trailing value.
Click to show 125 more rows

This conversion table shows various other 1890 amounts in 2021 dollars, based on the 2,877.69% change in prices:

Conversion: 1890 dollars in 2021
Initial value Equivalent value
\$1 dollar in 1890 \$29.78 dollars in 2021
\$5 dollars in 1890 \$148.88 dollars in 2021
\$10 dollars in 1890 \$297.77 dollars in 2021
\$50 dollars in 1890 \$1,488.85 dollars in 2021
\$100 dollars in 1890 \$2,977.69 dollars in 2021
\$500 dollars in 1890 \$14,888.47 dollars in 2021
\$1,000 dollars in 1890 \$29,776.94 dollars in 2021
\$5,000 dollars in 1890 \$148,884.71 dollars in 2021
\$10,000 dollars in 1890 \$297,769.41 dollars in 2021
\$50,000 dollars in 1890 \$1,488,847.07 dollars in 2021
\$100,000 dollars in 1890 \$2,977,694.14 dollars in 2021
\$500,000 dollars in 1890 \$14,888,470.70 dollars in 2021
\$1,000,000 dollars in 1890 \$29,776,941.39 dollars in 2021

## Inflation by Country

Inflation can also vary widely by country. For comparison, in the UK £100.00 in 1890 would be equivalent to £13,388.31 in 2021, an absolute change of £13,288.31 and a cumulative change of 13,288.31%.

Compare these numbers to the US's overall absolute change of \$2,877.69 and total percent change of 2,877.69%.

## Inflation by Spending Category

CPI is the weighted combination of many categories of spending that are tracked by the government. Breaking down these categories helps explain the main drivers behind price changes.

This chart shows the average rate of inflation for select CPI categories between 1890 and 2021.

Compare these values to the overall average of 2.62% per year:

Category Avg Inflation (%) Total Inflation (%) \$100 in 1890 → 2021
Food and beverages 3.90 15,003.27 15,103.27
Housing 4.18 21,207.36 21,307.36
Apparel 1.96 1,168.46 1,268.46
Transportation 3.29 6,885.10 6,985.10
Medical care 4.69 40,403.32 40,503.32
Recreation 1.15 348.20 448.20
Education and communication 1.84 991.43 1,091.43
Other goods and services 4.95 56,096.57 56,196.57

The graph below compares inflation in categories of goods over time. Click on a category such as "Food" to toggle it on or off:

For all these visualizations, it's important to note that not all categories may have been tracked since 1890. This table and charts use the earliest available data for each category.

## How to Calculate Inflation Rate for \$100, 1890 to 2021

Our calculations use the following inflation rate formula to calculate the change in value between 1890 and 2021:

CPI in 2021 CPI in 1890
×
1890 USD value
=
2021 USD value

Then plug in historical CPI values. The U.S. CPI was 9.1 in the year 1890 and 270.97016666667 in 2021:

270.970166666679.1
×
\$100
=
\$2,977.69

\$100 in 1890 has the same "purchasing power" or "buying power" as \$2,977.69 in 2021.

To get the total inflation rate for the 131 years between 1890 and 2021, we use the following formula:

CPI in 2021 - CPI in 1890CPI in 1890
×
100
=
Cumulative inflation rate (131 years)

Plugging in the values to this equation, we get:

270.97016666667 - 9.19.1
×
100
=
2,878%

## Comparison to S&P 500 Index

The average inflation rate of 2.62% has a compounding effect between 1890 and 2021. As noted above, this yearly inflation rate compounds to produce an overall price difference of 2,877.69% over 131 years.

To help put this inflation into perspective, if we had invested \$100 in the S&P 500 index in 1890, our investment would be nominally worth approximately \$19,262,439.25 in 2021. This is a return on investment of 19,262,339.25%, with an absolute return of \$19,262,339.25 on top of the original \$100.

These numbers are not inflation adjusted, so they are considered nominal. In order to evaluate the real return on our investment, we must calculate the return with inflation taken into account.

The compounding effect of inflation would account for 96.64% of returns (\$18,615,548.12) during this period. This means the inflation-adjusted real return of our \$100 investment is \$646,791.13. You may also want to account for capital gains tax, which would take your real return down to around \$549,772 for most people.

Investment in S&P 500 Index, 1890-2021
Original Amount Final Amount Change
Nominal \$100 \$19,262,439.25 19,262,339.25%
Real
\$100 \$646,891.13 646,791.13%

Information displayed above may differ slightly from other S&P 500 calculators. Minor discrepancies can occur because we use the latest CPI data for inflation, annualized inflation numbers for previous years, and we compute S&P price and dividends from January of 1890 to latest available data for 2021 using average monthly close price.

For more details on the S&P 500 between 1890 and 2021, see the stock market returns calculator.

Politics and news often influence economic performance. Here's what was happening at the time:

• Alice Sanger becomes the White House’s first female employee.
• The Forth Bridge (Scotland), becomes the longest bridge in Great Britain: it is officially opened by the Prince of Wales (King Edward VII).
• Wilhelm II, the German emperor, removes Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck.
• First electric chair execution is performed on murderer William Kemmler at Auburn Prison in New York.

## Data Source & Citation

Raw data for these calculations comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' (CPI), established in 1913. Inflation data from 1665 to 1912 is sourced from a historical study conducted by political science professor Robert Sahr at Oregon State University.

You may use the following MLA citation for this page: “\$100 in 1890 → 2021 | Inflation Calculator.” Official Inflation Data, Alioth Finance, 19 Jan. 2022, https://www.officialdata.org/us/inflation/1890?amount=100&endYear=2021.

Special thanks to QuickChart for their chart image API, which is used for chart downloads.

in2013dollars.com is a reference website maintained by the Official Data Foundation.